English Keys Notes: 10th Class Chapter 04

Question 01. Why is there no single and easy solution to the problem of population growth and its impact on environment?

Answer: The problem of population has diverse effects and it has destroyed the natural balance. It has already created so many problems. Since the problems are more than one, we need to take a number of steps to overcome the problems. We need to control the population rate and meanwhile we need to control the pollution as well. That is why there is no single and easy solution to the problem.

Question 02. How is the carrying capacity of earth affected?

Answer: According to scientists, earth can support between 500 million to more than one trillion people. The population of the earth is rapidly increasing and the natural resources are being destroyed. This is disturbing the natural balance and the carrying capacity of earth is getting affected. 

Question 03. Why does population growth directly affect the environment?

Answer: Population growth directly affects the environment because an increase in population means an increase in consuming more resources and producing vast quantity of waste materials. This results in pollution which badly affects the environment. 

Question 04. Analyze any passage of the text ‘Population growth and its impacts on Environment’ and identify key idea and its supporting details. 

Answer: Analysis of Paragraph 01.

Key Idea: Increase in population affects environment

Supporting details:

Presently, seven billion and five million people live in this world. By 2050, the world’s population will be 9.2 billion. The increase in population will generate more waste and it will create more pollution. This will badly affect the environment. 

Question 05. Locate examples from the text ‘Population Growth and its impacts on Environment’ that support an opinion. 


Opinion: We need to reassess our consumption patterns.

Supporting details:

We need to reduce the amount of resources we consume. We should take brief showers in bathing. We should say no to the use of plastics. We should buy less and we should recycle waste. 

Question 06. Keeping in view the population and the environment of your area, do you agree or not with the content of the lesson? Support your view with solid arguments. 

Answer: I agree with the contents of the lesson. With the present rate of increase in population, people will face serious challenges in the future. The water resources are decreasing, the forests are being cut, seas and rivers are full of pollutants and this situation is increasing because population is increasing and it is creating more need for industries. More population means more need for resources and it means more industries. More industries mean more pollution and more pollution means human survival and environment is in danger.


  1.  Write an essay of about 500 words on ‘Causes and Effects of the Wild Growth of urban Population’. 


Urbanization is a process whereby populations move from rural to urban areas, enabling cities and towns to grow. It can also be termed as a progressive increase in the number of people living in towns and cities. It is highly influenced by the notion that cities and towns have achieved better economic, political, and social mileages compared to rural areas. Accordingly, urbanization is very common in developing and developed worlds as more and more people have the tendency of moving closer to towns and cities to acquire “privileged” social and economic services as well as benefits. These include social and economic advantages such as better education, health care, sanitation, housing, business opportunities, and transportation. 

Here are few causes of Urbanization. 


Industrialization is a trend representing a shift from the old agricultural economics to a novel non-agricultural economy, which creates a modernized society. Through the industrial revolution, more people have been attracted to move from rural to urban areas on account of improved employment opportunities.


The industrialization has increased employment opportunities by giving people the chance to work in modern sectors in job categories that aids to stir economic developments.

In cities and towns, there are ample job opportunities that continually draw people from rural areas to seek a better livelihood.

Therefore, the majority of people frequently migrate into urban areas to access well-paying jobs as urban areas have countless employment opportunities in all developmental sectors such as public health, education, transport, sports and recreation, industries, and business enterprises. 

Rural Urban Transformation:

As localities become more fruitful and prosperous due to the discovery of minerals, resource exploitation, or agricultural activities, cities start emerging as the rural areas transform into urbanism. The increase in productivity leads to economic growth and higher value-added employment opportunities.

These causes are effecting the human life deeply. 

Here are some effects of urbanization.

Poor Health and diseases 

The social, economic and living conditions in congested urban areas affects access and utilization of public health care services. Slum areas in particular experience poor sanitation and insufficient water supply which generally make slum populations susceptible to communicable diseases. 

Water and Sanitation Problems

Because of overpopulation and rapid population increase in most urban centers, it is common to find there are inadequate sewage facilities.

Municipalities and local governments are faced with serious resource crisis in the management of sewage facilities. As a result, sanitation becomes poor and sewage flow chaotically, and they are drained into neighboring streams, rivers, lakes, or seas.

Eventually, communicable diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, plague, and diarrhea spread very fast leading to suffering and even deaths. Overcrowding also highly contributes to water scarcity as supply falls short of demand.


In order to control this alarming situation, Key stakeholders in urban areas must provide campaigns and counseling for effective medical health clinics and family planning to help reduce the high rates of population growth.

Medical health clinics oriented towards family planning options must be made accessible across the entire urban area with the objective of controlling diseases and population growth.

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